We have already understood the basic structure of the movement above. In this article, we will focus on popularizing the basic parts and functions in each mechanism. Due to the large number of movement parts, we only choose the most important ones here. . First, attach a basic comparison chart of the movement parts for your reference. It is not very clear what to find on the Internet. The styles of different movement parts will be slightly different.
The main part of the original drive system is the clockwork. The clockwork is loaded into the clockwork box. The composition of the clockwork box includes: clockwork, clockwork shaft, clockwork box and clockwork box. The mainspring is an elastic element that generates torque when it is tightened to power the movement of the watch.
The power reserve that a watch can provide depends on the number of working cycles of the mainspring. The more working cycles, the longer the watch’s power reserve may be. But it does not mean that the longer the length of the mainspring, the better, because the maximum power reserve can only be provided when the area of the mainspring coiled in the barrel is equal to the fully relaxed area. Therefore, when sufficient output torque is ensured, it is good to make the mainspring thinner, and it can also reduce the mainspring torque drop.
When the original barrel was repaired, the barrel had to be opened to take out the mainspring, cleaned and refueled. Many watches now use self-lubricating springs in the barrel, without having to open them. In addition, the seal between the barrel cover and the mainspring cover is forcibly opened, which may cause the barrel to deform or seal tightly when it is re-capped.
The mainspring barrel wheel transmits power to the second wheel, and then transmits it to the escapement via three and four wheels. We mentioned earlier that the transmission gear train can be divided into two types. The movement we disassembled is an off-center transmission form. The advantage of this form is that the space utilization of the plane and the axial direction is relatively high. The overall performance of the core provides favorable conditions.
Second, third and fourth rounds
The second wheel (center wheel) is the main identification point for deciding the center-center drive or the off-center drive. The center-driven two wheels are used to carry the display system, and fit together with the sub-wheels through a friction fit relationship. The off-center second wheel exists only to transmit the power from the prime mover system, and has no direct relationship with the display system.
The three wheels are connected to the second wheel. When receiving power, the gear ratio of the gear train and the direction of rotation of the gear train are changed, so it is also called passing wheels.
The four-wheel wheel is also called the second wheel. This wheel is connected to the escapement and its rotation speed is controlled to rotate at a speed of one revolution per minute. The top of the four wheels can be equipped with a second hand (large or small three seconds).
The escapement mechanism includes an escape wheel and a fork. The escape wheel drives the fork to escape one by one to complete the actions of locking, transmitting and releasing. The ‘tick’ sound of the mechanical watch also comes from this. When the escapement fork’s teeth are attached to the pallet fork, it will make a ‘tick’ sound. Then, as the balance wheel oscillates, the escapement wheel will continue to rotate, and the second pallet fork will be snapped with a ‘answer’.
Escape wheel and fork
The escapement mechanism periodically transmits the energy provided by the prime mover system to the balance spring system to maintain the system’s vibration without attenuation. The escapement mechanism transmits the number of vibrations of the balance spring system to the indicating device for the purpose of measuring time. Therefore, the quality of the escapement will directly affect the accuracy of the mechanical watch.
Balance spring system
The balance spring system, which also serves as a timing reference, includes a balance component, a balance component and a balance plate assembly. The balance wheel and hairspring components are very easy to recognize. The balance plate assembly is a little more complicated. It consists of a balance plate, a shock absorber assembly, a fast and slow needle part and an outer pile ring part.
The balance spring structure is also divided into two types: no card and card. One type is a spring type structure with card degree. This structure changes the effective length of the hairspring by adjusting the position of the fast and slow to achieve the purpose of changing the vibration cycle. The other type is a spring type structure without card degree. The uniformly distributed screws can be moved in and out, or the position of the rotatable weight placed can be adjusted, and the balance radius can be changed to achieve the purpose of changing the vibration cycle. Our movement here uses a card spring structure.
For the display system integrated into the active drive train, the most important are the hour wheel, minute wheel and second wheel, as well as the span wheel responsible for converting the rotation speed.
Three-needle movement display
The display mechanism of the junior hand, the hour, minute and second wheels are coaxially set at the center of the movement, and the hour, minute and second hands are installed. The hour hand works at a speed of one revolution every 12 hours; the minute hand works at a speed of one revolution per hour; the second hand works at a speed of one revolution per minute. The second wheel connected to it is directly controlled by the speed control system to control its rotation speed. Therefore, the second is the timing basis of the mechanical watch, which directly affects the accuracy of the mechanical watch. The span wheel is composed of a span wheel plate and a span gear shaft, and its function is to make the minute wheel that rotates once a hour rotates through a gear ratio to change the time wheel that rotates once every 12 hours.
Winding Needle System:
There are many parts of the winding needle. We have mentioned before. Manual winding generally consists of the crown, the spindle, the vertical wheel, the clutch wheel, the clutch lever, the clutch lever spring, the pull lever, the pressure spring, the needle wheel, the span wheel, It consists of wheels, split wheels, large steel wheels, small steel wheels, detents, detent springs, etc. The automatic winding is composed of a heavy hammer, a heavy hammer support, an eccentric shaft, a ball, an automatic rocker, a ratchet, a pawl, and an automatic upper splint.
Clutch and vertical wheels
When winding, the vertical wheel and the clutch wheel are in an engaged state. When the crown is turned, the clutch wheel drives the vertical wheel, and the vertical wheel passes the small steel wheel and the large steel wheel to wind the winding shaft tightly. The pawl prevents the large steel wheel from reversing. When the needle is moved, the crown is pulled out, the pull lever rotates on the pull lever and pushes the clutch lever to disengage the clutch wheel from the vertical wheel and engage the needle wheel. At this time, turning the crown will move the hand wheel to drive the hour and minute wheels through the span wheel to achieve the purpose of correcting the hour and minute hands.
There are many parts of the display system and the winding needle system as the auxiliary drive train. In contrast, the active drive train is easy to identify and remember. Finally, we attach a small three-handed work chart of the active drive train. The difference lies in controlling the position of the four wheels of the second hand, which is convenient for everyone to compare and remember.